There were 353,441 Germans in Kazakhstan and 21,472 in Kyrgyzstan (1999); In the Russian Empire, Germans were strongly represented among royalty, aristocracy, large land owners, military officers, and the upper echelons of the imperial service, engineers, scientists, artists, physicians, and the bourgeoisie in general.The Germans of Russia did not necessarily speak Russian; many spoke German, while French was often the language of the high aristocracy.
The Julian calendar runs 13 days behind the Gregorian calendar, the standard international calendar in use today.25 on the Julian calendar corresponds to today on the Gregorian calendar.(Although the Russian Orthodox Church still uses the Julian calendar, the Russian government uses the Gregorian calendar just like the rest of the world, so for secular purposes, today is Jan. 25.) Because the Julian calendar has a leap year in all years divisible by four—without excepting centurial years not divisible by 400, the way the Gregorian calendar does—the discrepancy between the Julian and Gregorian calendar changes periodically. The Russian Orthodox Church is one of 15 mostly independent national churches that comprise the Eastern Orthodox Church.For instance, beginning in 2100 the difference will increase from 13 days to 14 days when the Julian calendar adds a day to that year, and Russian Christmas will then fall on Jan. All Eastern Orthodox churches base their liturgical calendar on the Julian calendar, but some use the Revised Julian calendar.It was introduced in 1923 to bridge the gap between the Julian calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Gregorian calendar used by the rest of the world.